Toyota FT-EV Concept, 2009

Toyota FT-EV Concept, 2009












The DESIGN

The objective was a new kind of city car, one that would accommodate four people within an overall length of less than three metres. The result was a landmark solution that will have a long term influence on Toyota's future vehicle development. Toyota iQ is the ultimate expression of refined, yet environmentally efficient urban mobility.

The extraordinary interior space in a car that measures just 2,985mm long, 1,500mm high and 1,680mm wide is a tribute to the determination and ingenuity of Toyota's design and engineering team.



It can carry four people (three adults plus a child) in comfort and safety at motorway speeds, is just the beginning of the story. Starting with a clean sheet of paper, Toyota has created an ingenious and distinctive new city car. And with its proportionally large, 2,000mm wheelbase, Toyota iQ has a compact yet muscular stance that is like no other car.

Toyota iQ's design represents the essence of Toyota's J-factor heritage, which embraces the finest elements of Japanese aesthetics, such as miniaturisation and modernism. Most importantly it brings contradictory elements into harmony, such as "small yet spacious" or "hi-tech yet human".



SIX INNOVATIONS PRODUCE A BREAKTHROUGH IN VEHICLE PACKAGING

Toyota iQ's remarkable interior volume is down to its comparatively long 2,000mm wheelbase and short overhangs - 530mm at the front and 455mm at the rear. Interior length from the rear end of the instrument panel to the hip point of the rear seats is an impressive 1,238mm. To achieve this breakthrough, six space-saving engineering innovations were developed.

Integrating the front-mounted differential in a conventional transmission layout allowed Toyota iQ to be built with an ultra-short front overhang. This reduced overall length while at the same time increasing the length of the passenger compartment. Ingeniously this not only reduces the amount of space required for the engine compartment, it also allows the large diameter front wheels to be positioned at the far corners of the vehicle. This shortens the overhangs, which in turn improves stability and manoeuvrability.

Employing centre take-off steering gear and placing it higher in the engine bay means the transmission, engine and differential could be repositioned. The engine compartment could then be made considerably smaller, further reducing the front overhang.



The traditionally fuel tanks are located underneath a car's rear seats. By making the tank flat, reducing it to just 120mm in height and solving the problems of rapidly changing fuel surface levels that such a design would normally create, the tank could be relocated under the floor. Toyota iQ's fuel tank has a 32-litre capacity, giving an ample driving range. Angling the rear shock absorbers backwards allows interior rear space to be increased.

The slimness of the seatbacks frees up an extra 40mm of rear passenger room at knee height. The seats weigh up to 30 per cent less than conventional ones, contributing to overall fuel efficiency and low emissions. Using extruded pipe materials rather than high tensile sheet steel ensures the structure is rigid. The slimmer designs, with integrated headrests, save space without sacrificing comfort or safety.



Reducing the size of the heater and air conditioning unit by 20 per cent compared to the Toyota Yaris allowed the engineers to make significant space savings without compromising performance. This means the blower unit, usually found in front of the front passenger, could be integrated with the main ventilation unit in a central position. This innovation allowed the front passenger area to be moved forward, freeing up cabin space and increasing leg room.

The innovative asymmetric dashboard was designed to open up the whole cabin area. It ensures ample leg room for the front passenger, even when the seat is in its furthest forward position. The sliding seat configuration allows an adult 190cm tall to sit comfortably in the rear seat behind a front passenger of the same height. Shoulder-to-shoulder distance between driver and front passenger is 50mm wider than in Yaris and bears comparison with a C-segment vehicle. The all-round space and seating layout means there is ample room for three adults plus either a child passenger or luggage behind the driver.



ENGINEERED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE

The Toyota iQ represents the successful outcome of Toyota's well-established drive to reduce the environmental impact of its vehicles without compromising performance and driving dynamics. With CO2 emissions as low as 99g/km (with manual transmission), it is clearly a city car that's in the right place at the right time.

Its innovative, aerodynamic packaging has been achieved through a low overall height, low centre of gravity and wheels pushed out to the four corners of the car. This gives agility at low speed and unprecedented stability for a small car on motorways and winding roads. A minimum turning radius of 3.9 metres further enhances its nimble handling, even in tight city streets.



The 1.0-litre VVT-i petrol engine, winner of the 2008 Engine of the Year award in the sub-1.0-litre class, is a lightweight, three-cylinder unit, producing 67bhp (68 Din hp) at 6,000rpm and 91Nm of torque at 4,800rpm. Combined with a high-ratio five-speed manual transmission, it returns 65.7mpg in combined cycle driving and 99g/km of carbon dioxide (figures provisional prior to final homologation). This keeps Toyota iQ under the UK's 100g/km threshold for Vehicle Excise Duty, a benchmark that is also used for tax purposes in other major European markets, too. Specified with Multidrive transmission, the engine emits 110g/km of CO2 (provisional figure).



The Multidrive transmission

Multidrive uses Toyota's latest continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology to give a very smooth shift feel while optimising the balance between performance and fuel economy. It continuously monitors and selects the most appropriate gear ratio and shifting speed, automatically eliminating "shift shock" or jumps while changing gear. It maximises engine torque without unnecessary acceleration and smoothes gear ratio changes, for example limiting uphill shifts and making downhill shifts to achieve optimum engine brake force. The system provides all the city-friendly characteristics of a conventional automatic gearbox.

Models equipped with Multidrive feature an ECO driving indicator lamp on the multi-information display. This encourages more economical driving by signalling when fuel is being saved and, consequently, emissions are reduced. Current and average fuel consumption are also permanently on display.



The Gear shift indicator

Models with manual transmission are equipped with a gear shift indicator which shows the driver when to change up or down a gear to achieve the best environmental performance. The system takes driving conditions, accelerator pedal pressure and vehicle speed into account and can return fuel consumption savings of between 0.5 and three per cent compared to normal gear shifting, depending on individual driver habits.



The Future developments

The Toyota iQ's innovations will be adapted and evolved for future Toyota models. The car is a major milestone in Toyota's environmental commitment and efforts to develop technologies for much lower emissions.
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Toyota 4Runner, 2010

Toyota 4Runner, 2010
















When the first Toyota 4Runner sport utility vehicle (SUV) was launched back in 1984 it was a revolutionary new vehicle based on the mechanics of the four-wheel-drive Toyota pickup truck. The Toyota 4Runner combined the versatility and go-anywhere ability of four-wheel-drive with the comfort and utility found in passenger cars.



Twenty-five years, four generations and more than 1.5 million sales later, the Toyota 4Runner continues to evolve while remaining close to its roots. The all-new fifth-generation Toyota 4Runner is even more rugged and athletic, and packed with more power and better mileage. A completely redesigned interior and unique cargo area make the newest Toyota 4Runner smarter, more comfortable, and more versatile than ever.



More rugged than the Toyota Highlander and more versatile than the FJ Cruiser, the 4Runner combines the toughness and durability of body-on-frame construction with multi-use design that excels at a wide variety of tasks.

The newest Toyota 4Runner is taller, wider and longer for 2010, and is available in a variety of configurations. It will be offered in three models, top-of-the-line Limited, a well-equipped SR5, plus a Trail grade for those who require maximum off-road capability.



Drivetrain configurations include rear wheel 4x2, part-time 4x4 and full-time multi-mode 4x4 with a locking center differential. All 4x4 models are equipped with a 4.0-liter V6 mated to a five-speed ECT-i automatic transmission. The 4x2 models will be equipped with either a 2.7-liter four-cylinder engine mated to a four-speed ECT automatic or the 4.0-liter V6 with the five-speed ECT-i automatic. Optional third-row seats allow for up to seven-person capacity.



Exterior Styling

The design strategy for the new Toyota 4Runner emphasizes a more rugged, powerful stance. Large diameter wheels and tires were added to not only improve off-road performance, but also enhance the Toyota 4Runner's truck-based characteristics. In addition to its styling emphasis on ruggedness and outdoor adventure, the new design utilizes a combination of Toyota's classic boxy form and progressive styling.



All Toyota 4Runner grades feature rugged new bumpers and wider shoulders, with newly designed head- lamp and tail-light systems, which offer a newly-minted, technical design quality and better nighttime performance. The front ends square fender flares meld with a muscular profile that links with a beefy and square rear bumper and back door.



Aluminum alloy wheels are 17-inches in diameter on SR5 and Trail grades and 20-inches on the Limited, and include a full size spare.

In addition to its distinctive front grille, the SR5 grade also adopts overfenders and mud guards to help tackle inclement weather and off-road conditions. A roof rack comes standard for hauling equipment for outdoor activities.



The Trail grade is designed to maximize off-road performance with a superior approach and departure angles, high ground clearance, and an array of functional upgrades for the most demanding active outdoor enthusiast. It can be distinguished by a unique hood scoop, unique 17-inch wheels, black outer mirrors, front and rear bumper guards and dark smoke treatment on the head and tail lamps.



The Limited and SR5 grades add to the muscular design with special touches that provide a premium appearance. The front end includes a chrome-plated front grille insert, fog lamp bezel and front bumper molding. Front and rear overfenders and side skirts are color-keyed. Chrome plating is also found on the side molding, roof rack and rear bumper.

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Toyota FT-EV Concept, 2009

Toyota FT-EV Concept, 2009














The Toyota FT-EV concept shares its platform with the revolutionary-new Toyota iQ urban commuter vehicle. Already a huge hit in Japan, the iQ is lightweight and seats four passengers in comfort and security, while delivering exceptional mileage, sporty performance, unique refinements and a fun, youthful image.



Toyota FT-EV concept imagines an urban dweller, driving up to 50 miles between home, work and other forms of public transportation, such as high-speed rail. Although, for now, the Toyota FT-EV remains a pure concept, it represents a natural pairing of product strategies.

Though BEVs and new smaller vehicles like the iQ will be a key component of Toyota's sustainable mobility strategy, the conventional gas-electric hybrid, like the all new third-generation Prius, is considered Toyota's long-term core powertrain technology.



The first-generation lithium-ion batteries powering these PHVs will be built on an assembly line at Toyota's PEVE (Panasonic EV Energy Company, LTD) battery plant, a joint-venture production facility in which Toyota owns 60 percent equity. During its development, the new Prius was designed and engineered to package either the lithium-ion battery pack with plug-in capability, or the nickel-metal hydride battery for the conventional gas-electric system.

The 500 PHVs arriving globally in late 2009 will be used for market and engineering analysis. Lease-fleet customers will monitor the performance and durability of the first-generation lithium-ion battery, while offering real world feedback on how future customers might respond to the plug-in process.
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Toyota Land Cruiser V8, 2008

Toyota Land Cruiser V8, 2008














The new Land Cruiser V8, Toyota's top of the range model, is to make soon its debut on the European market. This eighth generation retains all the world-beating off-road capability of its predecessors but adds more refinement, comfort and superior driving quality.



Land Cruiser chief engineer, Sadayoshi Koyari, explains the development theme of this new generation as follow: "For more than 50 years now three key words have been the basis of each generation of Land Cruiser: strength, durability and reliability. Therefore, rather than opting for revolutionary change, we decided to carry on the sense of trust in the Land Cruiser as the basic concept. With the latest generation we had to recognise the loyalty of Land Cruiser customers by providing a vehicle that will not betray their trust."



Built on a completely redesigned platform with a body-on-frame design, the length of the new model has been increased to 4950mm while the wheelbase has been kept to 2850 mm. The height varies between 1865mm and 1910mm depending on the suspension featured on the model, the width of the model is reaching 1970mm.



The new Land Cruiser will be available with a brand new 4.5 D-4D V8 diesel engine, combined with a new 6 speed automatic transmission, which develops an impressive 650 Nm from 1600 to 2800 rpm and 286 hp at 3600 rpm. This diesel engine has a fuel consumption of 10,2 L/100km, a 4% improvement versus the outgoing 4.2 TD L6 engine, based on the European combined cycle.

With an improved 4.7 VVT-i V8 petrol engine, combined with a 5 speed automatic transmission, which develops 445 Nm at 3400 rpm and 288 hp at 5400 rpm. This petrol engine has a fuel consumption of 14.4 L/100km, a 12% improvement, based on the European combined cycle. Both engines are fully compliant with Euro IV emissions regulations.



Advanced new technologies to make new Land Cruiser V8 a genuine, go-anywhere off-road vehicle:

    * The world first Crawl Control system, available in combination with the petrol engine, which automatically controls the engine and the brakes to maintain a very low speed, avoiding spinning and locking. The driver only needs to steer the vehicle when driving in extreme off-road situations.

    * The world first 4-Wheel Active Height Control and Adaptive Variable Suspension (4W AHC & AVS), which links all four wheels' suspension system for the first time and also provides a new spring rate control system.

    * The European first Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS), which actively operates the front and rear stabiliser bars based on a pair of hydraulic control cylinders.

    * A newly developed centre Torsen® Limited Slip Differential (LSD).



The new model will feature a wide range of advanced safety features like the newly developed Multi Terrain Anti-lock Brake System, the Vehicle Stability Control, the Electronic Brake-force Distribution and 14 Airbags.
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Review 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster: technical specifications, prices and much more

 Review 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster: technical specifications, prices and much more


Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster has a good description, reasonable price and good performance. Price: 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster - $ 83.145. Although all SRT vehicle offers balanced, overall performance, the heart and soul of the new 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 a drive train that stand out. For 2008, SRT ups the ante with the new engine 8.4-liter aluminum V-10 with astonishing 600 hp and 560 pounds-ft of torque.
 Review 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster: technical specifications, prices and much more

 Review 2008 Dodge Viper SRT10 Roadster: technical specifications, prices and much more

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Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R


Nissan has several sports and supercars published sedan, but Nissan GT-R is remarkable. 2012 Nissan GT-R the first drive yesterday carried out. improve Nissan GT-R total driveability and performance of the GT-R is so significant that most would tend to think it's no shortage of second-generation rebirth. Performance of the insane at the time. Below is a tents-twin turbocharged 3.8-liter V6 develops 480 horsepower and 430 pound-feet of torque.



 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R
 Mated to a standard six-speed sequential transaxle dual-clutch gearbox in the rear, the power is sent to the floor of the car Attessa E-TS all-wheel-drive system. Nissan unofficial title key figures at the time, but most publications GT-R clocked sprint to 60 mph in less 3.5 seconds. Fast on the road, it is even better position on the track. Short is the only point of contact time before the famous Nurburgring 7:38 Porsche 911 Turbo and Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren.

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R
 During the 2009 Nissan GT-R is aggressive with a base price only $ 69,850 three years ago, in 2012 Nissan GT-R command much thicker wallet. Premium model with price $ 90,950. The only option is to cold-pack (with Dunlop SP Sport 7010 Run-flat tires all-season tires and 30/70 coolant / water mixture). The Black Edition model has a base price of $ 96.100.
 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

 Modern Car of 2012 Nissan GT-R

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VW Polo, 1975

VW Polo, 1975


 


The Mk I Polo, a rebadged version of the Audi 50, was introduced in 1975. The differences between the Audi and VW models were minor, with the Polo being cheaper and much more basic. The two cars were initially sold along side each other, but the Audi 50 never sold as well, and was withdrawn in 1978. The Polo was manufactured at the Volkswagen plant in Wolfsburg. In 1977, the Derby sedan was released, which was simply a Polo, identical to the hatchback from the C-pillar forward, with a large boot attached (an old Audi proposal, but never sold by this brand).

When first on sale the range topping car, the LS model, featured the 50 PS (37 kW) 1043 cc engine found in the Audi 50. Other specifications included parking lights, rear wash wipe, sun visors, chromed bumpers and 4.5J X 13" wheels. The N model was the basic starting spec lacking many of the features of the LS. In 1979 the GLS was introduced, replacing the LS as the range-topping car; specification upgrades included chrome headlight and grill surrounds, sunroof, a cigarette lighter and chrome wheel trims.

895 cc, 1093 cc and 1272 cc engines were used, with the smaller one used only in the Polo hatchback, and the 1272 cc only in the Derby, Audi 50, and the rare Polo GT. Different levels of compression were used on each size to achieve different power outputs, and the variations are numerous, often differing depending on the country of sale, ranging from 35 to 60 PS (26 to 44 kW).

Mk IF (1979-1981)
The Mk I Polo and Derby were facelifted in 1979 (Mk IF) with plastic bumpers, a different front grille and a revised dashboard. The round headlights of the Derby were replaced with square ones, bringing it inline with the similar Golf-based Jetta sedan.

Further models were added including CLS, S and an out run LX model. The Mk I's production run finally ended in October 1981 with over 500,000 Polos sold worldwide.
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VW Golf I, 1974

VW Golf I, 1974

 

The first Golf began production in 1974. Marketed in the United States and Canada from 1975 to 1984 as the Volkswagen Rabbit and in Latin America as the Volkswagen Caribe, it featured the water-cooled, front wheel drive design pioneered by the Citro├źn Traction Avant in 1934 with the addition of a hatchback pioneered by the Renault 4 in 1961. The Golf was Wheels magazine's Car of the Year for 1975. The name is short for Golf-Strom, German for Gulf Stream; it was named for that oceanic current to reflect its international character. It was originally named the Rabbit in North America and the Caribe in Latin America, ironically, because marketers decided that no one in the Western Hemisphere would understand the European name.

While the Golf was not the first design with this layout (earlier examples being the Austin and Morris Mini of 1959, the Austin Maxi in the late 1960s and the Fiat 128 3P of the early 1970s), it was very successful, especially since it married these features with Volkswagen's reputation for solid build-quality and reliable engineering.

The Golf was designed by Italian automobile architect / designer Giorgetto Giugiaro, of the ItalDesign design studio. A version of this original Golf model, known as the Volkswagen CitiGolf, is still produced in South Africa as an entry level car.

In 1978, Volkswagen commenced producing the Rabbit version of the Mk1 Golf in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, thus becoming the first European car manufacturer in modern times to produce a vehicle in the United States. Former Chevrolet executive James McLernon was chosen to run the factory, which was built to lower the cost of the Rabbit in North America by producing it locally. Unfortunately, McLernon tried to "Americanize" the Rabbit by softening the suspension and using cheaper materials for the interior. VW purists in America and company executives in Germany were displeased, and for the 1983 model year the Pennsylvania plant went back to using stiffer shocks and suspension with higher-quality interior trim. The plant also began producing the GTI for the North American market. (Rabbits were built in Pennsylvania through 1984.) The first VW Caddy pick-up, based on the Mk1 Golf, was also created at the Pennsylvania plant.

The GTI version, launched in Europe in 1976 and in the US in 1983, virtually created the hot hatch genre overnight, and many other manufacturers since have created special sports models of their regular volume selling small hatchbacks. It was one of the first small cars to adopt fuel injection for its sports version, which raised power output of the 1588 cc engine to 110 PS (81 kW/108 hp). In 2004, Sports Car International announced the GTI Mk I as the 3rd best car of the 1980s. In the United States, the Mk1 Golf GTI was known as the Rabbit GTI.

There was a minor facelift in 1980 for North American versions only, which saw the adoption of larger rear lamp clusters (more in line with Guigiaro's original concepts), larger bumpers, square headlights and a new dashboard with a more modern-looking instrument display.

The convertible version, named the Cabriolet, was sold from 1980 to 1993 (a convertible version of the Golf II was not made, so the Mk1 cabrio with slight modification was produced until the introduction of the Mk III cabrio). It had a reinforced body, transverse roll bar, and a high level of trim. The A1 Volkswagen convertible is of unibody construction built entirely at the factory of Karmann, from stamping to final assembly; Volkswagen supplied the engine, suspension, interior, etc. for Karmann to install. The vinyl tops were insulated and manually operated, with a glass rear window.

As of 2006, Volkswagen of South Africa still manufactures two first generation Golfs, the four-door "Citi" Golf and the "Pickup".
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VW Passat Variant, 1973

VW Passat Variant, 1973




The original VW Passat was launched in 1973. The body types offered originally were 2- and 4-door sedans and similar looking three- and five-door versions. Externally all four shared a modern fastback style design, styled by the Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro). All the versions sharing the same external design was unusual, since two of the models were traditional sedans with a separate trunk. A five-door station wagon was introduced in 1974. Passat was effectively a less expensive version of the Audi 80 (Fox) sedan which had been introduced a year earlier and which had a more conservative body style, so that the Audi and Volkswagen models had distinct body styles and image. In Europe, Passat was equipped with hexagonal or single round or double round headlights depending on specification.

In North America, the car was called the Dasher, and was only available with round DOT-spec lights. The three-door hatchback model was launched in North America in 1975.

VW Passat was one of the most modern European family cars at the time, and was intended as a replacement for the ageing Volkswagen Type 3, and as a contemporary rival for popular Ford Taunus/Cortina) and Opel Ascona/Vauxhall Cavalier. The Passat was Wheels magazine's Car of the Year for 1974 and its sister model Audi 80 was nominated car of the year by the European motor press a year earlier. The platform was named B1.

The Passat used the 4 cylinder OHC 1.3 L, 1.5 L, and 1.6 L petrol engines, also used in the Audi 80—longitudinally mounted with front wheel drive, in Audi tradition, with either a 4-speed manual transmission or 3-speed automatic. It had a MacPherson strut front suspension with a solid axle/coil spring setup in back.

The SOHC 1.5 produced 75 PS (55 kW) and was enlarged to 1.6 L for 1975. The larger engine included tighter emissions controls, so power output dropped to 70 PS (52 kW). Bosch fuel injection on the 1.6 was introduced in 1976 and brought power up to 78 PS (57 kW).

The whole range received a facelift in 1977 (launched 1978 outside Europe), featuring an interior upgrade and subtly revised styling including repositioned indicators and quad (round) headlights on all models. This generation was sold in Brazil well into the 1980s and extensively exported to Iraq, where many are still on the road. It was also assembled in Nigeria.

1979 saw the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf's 1.5 L Diesel engine, which produced just 48 PS (35 kW) in the 1130 kg (2500 lb) car. 0–100 km/h time for the Diesel was 19.4 seconds, 6.2 seconds slower than the gasoline (petrol) engine. Still, all gasoline engines were dropped for North America in 1981 in preparation for the next generation car the next year.
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